As we head into the last month of the year, I’ve been thinking about all the centennial anniversaries that were marked in 2019. The Great Migration of African Americans out of the agrarian South and into the industrial North began in 1919. World War I veterans returned home to communities—including Omaha, Charleston, Chicago—that would be shook by race riots. The artistic and cultural explosion that would become known as the Harlem Renaissance began that year. Oakland Tribune columnist Delilah Beasley published her monumental history of African Americans, “The Negro Trail-Blazers of California” in 1919. The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, granting women the right to vote, was approved by Congress.
These events and many others significantly changed our society. They were influenced, among other things, by
- the Progressive Movement that called for social reforms in the workplace;
- the labor movement that looked beyond capitalism to create a more equitable society;
- the early civil rights